Official Name: Republic of Turkmenistan;
Population: 6.7 million;
Total area: 488,1OOsq. km;
Density: 8 people per sq. km;
Languages: Turkmen, Russian, English;
Religions: Muslim 85%, Eastern Orthodox 10%, other 5%;
Ethnic mix: Turkmen 78%, Uzbek 9%, Russian 6%, Kazakh 5% and others 2%;
Government: Single party republic;
National currency: Manat.
Turkmenistan (Turkmen: Türkmenistan; also known as Turkmenia) is a Turkic country in Central Asia. The name Turkmenistan means “land of the Turkmen“. The name of its capital, Ashgabat, is translated as “the city of loveliness”. Until 1991, it was a constituent republic of the Soviet Union, the Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic. It is bordered by Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the southwest, Uzbekistan to the northeast, Kazakhstan to the northwest, and the Caspian Sea to the west.
According to CIA World Factbook 2007 figures, Turkmenistan’s GDP growth rate of 11.6% ranks 11th in the world. Although it is wealthy in natural resources in certain areas, most of the country is covered by the Karakum (Black Sands) Desert. It has a single-party system, and was ruled by President for Life Saparmurat Niyazov until 21 December 2006, when he died. Presidential elections were held on 11 February 2007. Gurbanguly Berdimuhammedow was declared the winner with 89% of the vote. He was sworn in on 14 February 2007.
Click on Wikipedia Turkmenistan: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turkmenistan , you can see about this Contents:
- 1 History
- 2 Politics
- 3 Human rights
- 4 Provinces and districts
- 5 Geography
- 6 Economy
- 7 Demographics
- 8 Culture
- 9 Miscellaneous topics
- 10 Further reading
- 11 References
- 12 External links
An other web resource is “ Turkmenistan” from sub web Orexca dat com:
Turkmenistan is situated in the very heart of Central Asia between the Caspian Sea in the west and the great Amu Darya in the east, from Aral Sea littoral steppes in the north to the Kopet Dag mountain range to the south, Turkmenistan is an independent state founded in 1991 after the disintegration of the USSR and five years later it attained a unique political status which was recognized by the United Nations Organization. The founder of the state, the national leader of Turkmenistan, President Saparmurat Turkmenbashy has clearly specified the character of his country and its place in the sophisticated geopolitical space by capacious formulation “permanent neutrality”.
Web Resource: http://turkmenistan.orexca.com/
In City of Ashgabat are 2 Business center who look like Mall Center:
Jygyldyk (tolkuchka) bazaar
The Eastern bazaar is one of the pillars of Oriental traditions. Intricate and ritual reign here. Trade is the art here. Whatever you want, it is sold here. Famous Turkmen carpets are displayed for selling all over the place. This is the true miracle created by Turkmen women. Not surprisingly, Turkmen carpets are considered to be the most beautiful of all oriental carpets. One cannot help but be delighted by the originality of their design, the harmony of their colours and by a craftsmanship that produces a textile of such fine quality and astonishing strength.
Jewelry! You can”t miss them. It is a discovery for those who have never seen Turkmen jewelry before. Centuries-old refined simplicity, unmatched techniques, incomparable forms… Jewelry made of silver laid out with carnelian stone are on sale.
What a national clothes, craftworks! Everything is unique and original.
No matter how comfortable and accessible modern supermarkets are, the majority numbers of the citizen of the Turkmen capital still do shopping at bazaars. Its natural that exotic Asian assortment from the Turkmen fields and vegetable gardens is on sale here. Melons pomegranates, grapes, dried fruits and vegetables are sold all year round.
HISTORY of TURKMENISTAN:
In the middle of the eleventh century, the Turkoman-ruled Seljuk Empire concentrated its strength in the territory of modern Turkmenistan in an attempt to expand into Khorasan (modern Afghanistan). The empire broke down in the second half of the twelfth century, and the Turkmen lost their independence when Genghis Khan took control of the eastern Caspian Sea region on his march west. For the next seven centuries, the Turkmen people lived under various empires and fought constant intertribal wars. Little is documented of Turkmen history prior to Russian engagement. However, from the thirteenth to the sixteenth centuries, Turkmen formed a distinct ethnolinguistic group. As the Turkmen migrated from the area around the Mangyshlak Peninsula in contemporary Kazakhstan toward the Iranian border region and the Amu Darya basin, tribal Turkmen society further developed cultural traditions that would become the foundation of Turkmen national consciousness.
The October Revolution of 1917 in Russia and subsequent political unrest led to the declaration of the area as the Turkmen SSR, one of the six republics of the Soviet Union in 1924, assuming the borders of modern Turkmenistan.
The new Turkmen SSR went through a process of further Europeanization. The tribal Turkmen people were encouraged to become secular and adopt European-style clothing. The Turkmen alphabet was changed from the traditional Arabic script to Latin and finally to Cyrillic. However, bringing the Turkmens to abandon their previous nomadic ways in favor of communism was not fully embraced until as late as 1948. Nationalist organizations in the region also existed during the 1920s and the 1930s.
When the Soviet Union began to collapse, Turkmenistan and the rest of the Central Asian states heavily favored maintaining a reformed version of the state, mainly because they needed the economic power and common markets of the Soviet Union to prosper. Turkmenistan declared independence on 27 October 1991, one of the last republics to secede.
In 1991, Turkmenistan became a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, an international organization of former Soviet republics. However, Turkmenistan reduced its status in the organization to “associate member” in August 2005. The reason stated by the Turkmen president was the country’s policy of permanent neutrality. It is the only former Soviet state (aside from the Baltic states now in the European Union) without a full membership.
The former Soviet leader, Saparmurat Niyazov, remained in power as Turkmenistan’s leader after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Under his post-Soviet rule, Russian-Turkmeni relations greatly suffered. He styled himself as a promoter of traditional Muslim and Turkmen culture (calling himself “Turkmenbashi”, or “leader of the Turkmen people”), but he became notorious in the West for his dictatorial rule and extravagant cult of personality. The extent of his power greatly increased during the early 1990s, and in 1999 he became President for Life.
Niyazov died unexpectedly on 21 December 2006, leaving no heir apparent and an unclear line of succession. A former deputy prime minister rumored to be the illegitimate son of Niyazov, Gurbanguly Berdimuhammedow, became acting president, although under the constitution the Chairman of the People’s Council, Ovezgeldy Atayev, should have succeeded to the post. However, Atayev was accused of crimes and removed from office.
In an election on 11 February 2007, Berdimuhammedow was elected president with 89% of the vote and 95% turnout, although the election was condemned by outside observers as unfair.
Main article: Politics of Turkmenistan
The politics of Turkmenistan take place in the framework of a presidential republic, with the President both head of state and head of government. Turkmenistan has a single-party system. However in September 2008, the People’s Council unanimously passed a resolution adopting a new Constitution. The latter will result in the abolition of the Council and a significant increase in the size of Parliament in December 2008. The new Constitution also enables the formation of multiple political parties.
After 69 years as part of the Soviet Union (including 67 years as a union republic), Turkmenistan declared its independence on 27 October 1991.
President for Life Saparmurat Niyazov, a former bureaucrat of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, ruled Turkmenistan from 1985, when he became head of the Communist Party of the Turkmen SSR, until his death in 2006. He retained absolute control over the country after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. On 28 December 1999, Niyazov was declared President for Life of Turkmenistan by the Mejlis (parliament), which itself had taken office a week earlier in elections that included only candidates hand-picked by President Niyazov. No opposition candidates were allowed.
The current President of Turkmenistan is Gurbanguly Berdimuhammedow, who took control following Niyazov’s 2006 death.
The former Communist Party, now known as the Democratic Party of Turkmenistan, has been the only one legally permitted to operate. Political gatherings are illegal unless government sanctioned.
To find additional government information, look for Turkmenistan law at http://www.tax.gov.tm/english/legal/index.html.
Main article: Human rights in Turkmenistan
Human rights are generally not respected by many authorities in Turkmenistan, although some human rights are guaranteed in the Constitution of Turkmenistan, such as social equality, sex equality, freedom from cruel and unusual punishment, and freedom of movement. Other social and economic rights include the right to work, the right to rest, and the right to education.However, there are freedom of religion issues. According to the 2007 Reporters Without Borders World Press Freedom Index, Turkmenistan had the third-worst restrictions on the freedom of the press in the world. In addition, according to the BBC, the new president enforced a ban on satellite dishes, a measure often threatened under Niyazov, but never acted upon. Beards and long hair are banned in Turkmenistan. 
Provinces and districts
Turkmenistan is divided into five provinces or welayatlar (singular – welayat) and one independent city ; Ahal Province, Balkan Province, Daşoguz Province, Lebap Province, Mary Province and Ashgabat independent city of Turkmenistan.
Over 80% of the country is covered by the Karakum Desert. The center of the country is dominated by the Turan Depression and the Karakum Desert. The Kopet Dag Range, along the southwestern border, reaches 2,912 meters (9,553 ft). The Turkmen Balkan Mountains in the far west and the Kugitang Range in the far east are the only other significant elevations. Rivers include the Amu Darya, the Murghab, and the Tejen.
The climate mostly consists of an arid subtropical desert, with little rainfall. Winters are mild and dry, with most precipitation falling between January and May. The area of the country with the heaviest precipitation is the Kopet Dag range.
Half of the country’s irrigated land is planted with cotton, making the country the world’s tenth-largest producer of it. It possesses the world’s fifth-largest reserves of natural gas and substantial oil resources. In 1994, the Russian government’s refusal to export Turkmen gas to hard currency markets and mounting debts of its major customers in the former Soviet Union for gas deliveries contributed to a sharp fall in industrial production and caused the budget to shift from a surplus to a slight deficit.
The majority of Turkmenistan’s citizens are ethnic Turkmens who predominately adhere to Islam with sizeable minorities of Uzbeks and Russians. Smaller minorities include Kazakhs, Azeris, Balochis, Armenians, Koreans, and Tatars. A small number of Bukharian Jews used to live in Turkmenistan but almost none are left now. Turkmen is the official language of Turkmenistan, though Russian still is widely spoken in cities as a “language of inter-ethnic communication” (per the 1992 Constitution). There is also a small but distinct minority of Nokhur.
Education is universal and mandatory through the secondary level, the total duration of which was earlier reduced from 10 to 9 years, with the new President it has been decreed that the 2007 – 2008 school year will be of 10 years as will all subsequent years.